Forstliche Bundesversuchsanstalt - Index

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Special Issue ESPR - Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Special Issue No. 1, 1-104 (1998)

Description and evaluation of pollution impacts on forest ecosystems: Results of long-term Austrian field experiments
Abstract In the early 1980's, the Austrian Federal Forest Research Centre decided to carry out certain interdisciplinary work in the field of "New-Type Forest Decline" as one of its research priorities. Many of the natural and man-made stress parameters referred to in the literature were included in these investigations so that it was possible to treat the complicated system of causes and effects in sufficient detail and to improve the understanding of the correlations between (potentially) damaging influences and the mechanisms of stress resistance. The major goal was to describe and assess the importance of the correlations between air pollution, natural stressors and site conditions, as well as to determine how ecosystems respond to prevailing circumstances. As a result, the "Zillertal (Tyrol) Altitude Profile" project carried out in the Central Alps was launched in cooperation with key scientific support from Austrian universities and research centres. Because of their protective functions, mountain forests are of great importance to Austria and, therefore, altitude profiles which include stands of high-elevation reforestation near the timber line were chosen as long-term observation areas.
  • The project was terminated after six years since it had, for example, provided information about the following a broad spectrum of multidisciplinary monitoring data and results
  • seasonal variations of air pollutants and meteorological components
  • correlations between air pollutants and meteorological parameters
  • and methods suited for an early diagnosis of plant stress.
The follow-up project "Achenkirch Altitude Profiles" located in the Limestone Alps, is based on the Zillertal results and was started in 1990. The principle aims of this project are to expand the knowledge regarding stress and stress tolerance of forest ecosystems as well as to prepare nation-wide assessment models based on a variety of available data and findings. Various Austrian and German universities and scientific institutions are participating in the studies and the Federal Forest Research Centre is coordinating the multidisciplinary work. As a result of scientific cooperation, it was possible to describe natural and anthropogenic stress factors for forest ecosystems, to evaluate the dangers with the help of limiting values, criteria and spectra, and to assess the negative effects at the plant physiological level. The risk assessment pertains not only to the local sites, but also applies to larger areas. All findings from the projects are based on actual field experiments with mature trees and many publications have been issued. In a special issue in ESPR – Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. (publication date: early in 1998), 15 papers are submitted which represent not only the newest results from the Achenkirch project, but also from other related studies. Consequently, it will be possible to offer ranges and criteria describing the physiological condition of trees for differently stressed ecosystems. Since many papers deal with airborne stress factors, limiting values and criteria are presented as an example for VOC's, SVOC's, proton and nitrogen input. In addition, new methods of bioindication for evaluating the environmental situation will be offered, far distance pollutant transportation will be described based on heavy metals, and nitrogen and sulphur inputs from dry, wet and occult depositions will be assessed. Based on nation-wide Austrian data accumulated over many years, the influence of climatic conditions on the nutrient supply of trees will be discussed. Information obtained from the Austrian monitoring networks also forms the basis for assessing risks on forest ecosystems caused by ozone, nitrogen and protons. Im Verzeichnis sind die Mitarbeiter der FBVA kursiv gesetzt
Inhalt F. Herman, C. Lütz, S. Smidt: Pollution-related stress facors for Forest Ecosystems - Synopsis, page 2-15

F. Herman, C. Lütz, S. Smidt: Description and evaluation of pollution impacts on forest ecosystems: Results of long-term Austrian field experiments - Introduction, page 16-24

S. Smidt: Risk assessment of air pollutants for forested areas in Austria, Bavaria and Switzerland, page 25-31

E. Rosenberg, A. Haunold, P. Schubert, M. Grasserbauer, Measurement of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations Along an Altitude Profile, page 32-37

P. Schröder, J. Plümacher: Evaluation of the impact of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons on forest trees based on air and needle measurement data and the detoxification capacity of spruce needles, page 38-45

P. Weiss, G. Lorbeer, S. Scharf: Persistent organic pollutants in remote Austrian forests - altitude-related results, page 46-52

M. Kalina, E. Zambo, H. Puxbaum: Assessment of wet, dry and occult deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at an alpine site, page 53-58

K. Stefan & K. Gabler: Connections between climatic conditions and the nutritional status of spruce needles determined from the Austrian Bio-Indicator Grid, page 59-62

K. Stefan & A. Fürst: Indication of S and N inputs by means of needle analyses based on the Austrian Bio-Indicator Grid, page 63-69

F. Herman: Investigation of the lead content of spruce needles in remote and rural areas over a thirty year period, page 70-74

M. Knoflacher, W. Loibl: Calculating and mapping of Critical Loads for protons and nitrogen on forest ecosystems in the NorthernTyrolean Limestone Alps, page 75-80

F. Mutsch: Indication of long range transport of heavy metals based on the Austrian Forest Soil Monitoring System , page 81-87

C. Lütz, R. Kuhnke-Thoss, S. Thiel: Natural and anthropogenic influences on photosynthesis in trees of alpine forests, page 88-95

M. Tausz, E. Stabentheiner, A. Wonisch, D. Grill: Classification of biochemical response patterns for the assessment of environmental stress to Norway spruce, page 96-100

M. Müller, M. Tausz, H. Guttenberger, D. Grill: Early detection of environmental influences by recording chromosomal defects in root tip meristems of spruce trees, page 101-104


Die Namen von Mitarbeitern der FBVA sind kursiv gesetzt
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